08 Reference Phenomena

Reference Points

In the universe of motion derived from the postulates for the Reciprocal System of theory, a generalized three dimensional reference system is deficient in its ability to correctly represent the nature of the scalarized (dimensionally randomized) motion causing any given effect. Without this deficiency none of the observed effects or behaviors of matter could be observed, nor would there even be such a thing as matter. Designation of reference points serves the dual purpose of facilitating mathematical description of the motion causing the phenomena and providing a conceptual base from which verbal description of the phenomena becomes simplified.

The designation of different types of reference points is merely an auxiliary device to compensate for the deficiencies and limitations of the spatial and temporal reference systems. Reference points constitute the zero point in generalized space from which a motion or an effect of motion can be measured. The specific effect represented in the dimensions of a generalized three dimensional system is determined by the nature of the motion or motions present and/or newly added for representation at a specific Notational Reference Point. One dimensional effects are always represented radially outward from a reference point. Two dimensional effects are two dimensional loops through the reference point; one such reference point would be randomly directed in space and would seem to be spherical, but a string of such points would have limited randomness of arrangement in space and appear to be a toroidally shaped effect.

The unavoidable nature of conventional language and usage by which things and concepts are identified, requires that the name given to a type of reference point should also describe something about the reference point in question. The directionality and dimensionality of the scalarized motion causing the phenomena determines how each reference point is to be designated: high, low, positive, negative, north, south, or in some other manner.

It is the ambiguity of positive and negative direction and the fact that there are always representations of scalar motions at individual reference points that are unrepresentable as other than an effect that causes the necessity for designating some reference points as positive and others as negative. The effects caused by scalar motions represented in one dimension of a reference point system must be different from the effects caused by scalar motions requiring representation in two dimensions. The question of how one determines whether the reference point in use is to be designated as a positive reference point or a negative reference point or in some other manner is simply how the motion unit responsible for the effect is represented: 1D or 2D, 2dL, 1dR or 2dR; as well as whether a change in scalar directionality is required, and in which generalized aspect of motion the effect is being represented.

In the natural reference system there is only motion; no mass and no gravity; there is only the concept of change; motion, but no actual change of location because location is a dimensional concept; there is no tendency to move as we normally think of “move”; there are no forces in the natural reference system of scalar motion. Inward, outward, and around are only orientational directions relative to some specific reference point coordinate system. Primary motion and linear vectorial movement, an effect having as a limit the equivalent of primary motion, are the only motions that can be directly represented in the generalized three dimensional reference system. It becomes obvious that every phenomenal thing or effect other than the movement of photons is an effect of, rather than a direct representation of, displacement motion.

The limitations of a generalized three dimensional reference system cause the effects of all displacement motions to be distributed in a manner that may subsequently require an object to have vectorial movement in a specific spatial direction. The particular representation of scalar motion that involves all directions of all three dimensions of an individual reference point system is the 2D1dR displacement motion that is fundamental for the effects identified as atoms of matter; the 1D1dR atomic motion modifies the effect of the 2D1dR motion. The two Dimensional rotationally represented motion of atoms is fundamentally distributed in all directions of the individual reference point system with equal probability for effect. As a result the magnitude of the effect can only be related to how much displacement motion is being represented at the Notational Reference Point and how far away from the NRP a measurement is being made; i.e., mass and gravitation effects. The gravitational effect is radially outward from the reference point for mass; i.e., effectively one dimensional because of the limitation of the generalized system in which to represent the effect.

If different types of reference point effects originate at the same physical location the physical movements caused by the respective effects may be in the exact same spatial direction or the opposite spatial direction because representation in space for the effects of all reference points is outward from each reference point. That is why they are called reference point effects.27 Displacement motions having representational complexity greater than the unidirectional rotational representation for the mass effect of atoms merely modify and/or add to the mass (and gravitational) effects already present.

Some effects actually seem to separate from an origin and proceed through three dimensional space; for example, photons originate at negative reference points and proceed outward in randomly selected directions at the speed of light. Photons are themselves either high or low energy reference points. The photon representation involves alternating directional representation in the generalized dimensional system for the effect of the 1D2dL displacement motion to achieve the effect of equal probability distribution for the 2dL motion. The photon 1D2dL displacement motion is represented perpendicular to the primary progression which must be represented as outward in the three dimensionality of the aspect in which the interaction responsible for the identification of the presence of the photon occurs. Since the primary motion unit is represented as outward toward more positive values of space and time, the reference point from which each photon is emitted is referred to as a negative reference point. The observation of effects for all light speed particles is made only upon interaction in the spatial aspect; therefore, the type of reference point required by all light speed “particles” is negative because they all move outward toward more positive values in both the spatial and the temporal reference systems from an apparent condition of non-existence that is similar to the origin for photons of radiation.

Gravitational reference points are designated as positive because the effect is in the negative direction toward the reference datum of unity of space. Gravitation results from the continuous motion identified as displacement oriented negatively in the spatial aspect and positively oriented in the temporal aspect of each individual Notational Reference Point in the material sector. For most reference point effects the direction, either positive or negative, of the temporal aspect of a specific displacement motion is responsible for the negative or positive designation for the reference point. The normal flow of time is always positively outward from now. Directionality of the time aspect of the displacement in question does not enter into the question of type of reference point for either photons or gravity because the effect of the causative motions does not modify the normal outward flow of time with respect to the NRP.

Rotational Oscillations: One-Dimensional

The use of a different representation mode for a next displacement motion always gives rise to a different phenomena not previously observed. At a specific temperature which is unique for each kind of thermal unit, the thermal 1D2dR displacement motion distributed with the thermal unit becomes sufficient for a portion to become equally representable as a 1D2dR motion. This representation is within the thermal unit and extends from a particular 1D1dR displacement. For the condition at which the total thermal oscillation can be consistent with environmental conditions and a portion of the distributed positive displacement 1D2dL thermal motion to become represented as 1D2dR displacement motion of an individual NRP atom or an associated electron, a conversion occurs. The change of mode of representation is accomplished by a zero energy conversion process whereby one kind of two directionally represented motion appears as another kind of two directionally represented motion. This type of motion conversion always occurs at threshold conditions and results from a probability distribution for conservation of motion units identified by D.B. Larson.28

All units of 1D2dL thermal displacement motion are distributed among all possible directions designated by the inter-regional ratio and as dictated by the complexity of structure of each thermal unit. The change of representation is not a direct unit for unit conversion as measured from the three dimensional reference system view point, particularly with respect to the 2L = 8R equivalence. This new motion of atoms and other thermal groups is identified with electric charge effects and is a motion that is inherently distributed within the individual NRP. Thermal motion is distributed in generalized space by random orientation generalization, whereas the electric charge is distributed within the individual reference point by rotational representation prior to random orientation of the reference point coordinate system.

If the conversion is to the charge effect on an electron, the electron can have effective motion distributed in the dimensions of space. Recall the notation for an electron, M 0-0-(1). Offsetting the negative displacement of the photon by positive rotation to form the material sub-atomic rotational base causes zero net displacement. The (1) indicates a negative displacement in the electric dimension. This 1D1dR unit of motion is inward in the temporal aspect and outward in the spatial aspect. The outward progression of either aspect, particularly time, cannot be nullified. The normal progression of primary motion is always represented in one direction in a linear manner and, thereby, is being represented along one of the axes perpendicular to the photon oscillation effect of the electron NRP. Neither the space aspect nor the time aspect of primary motion may be associated with the other aspect of a displacement motion in a different mode of representation in an attempt to constitute effective motion; thus, neither the uncharged electron configuration nor the uncharged positron configuration has effective motion. The electron can have existence in the uncharged condition while associated with normal atoms of matter, which have excess positively oriented rotationally represented time beyond the normal progression. By taking on a unit of 1D2dR positive displacement, the charged electron is capable of independent existence as effective motion separate from atoms of matter. That is why electrons are identified only as separate entities having electric charge and never in the uncharged condition. Uncharged positrons are capable of direct association with atoms of matter because they are the same type structures; rotationally represented positive displacement motion. Both charged electrons and charged positrons may remain with atoms of matter causing the specific atom to exhibit appropriate charge.

By the conversion of thermal 1D2dL motion to electric charge, 1D2dR motion, along with transfer of 1D1dL translational motion, electrons can be given translational movement and charge. This process is referred to as thermionic emission of electrons. As a threshold effect, other sources of 1D2dL energy can also be used to accomplish the same effect, so long as the source is of sufficient magnitude to meet the threshold requirements for conversion of representational mode and any other orientational requirements, including translational velocity effect for the emitted electron, as in the photoelectric effect.

It takes a large, but calculable, number of units of thermal motion to cause equivalency for a specifically associated unit of 1D2dR displacement. The distribution of motion at the designated reference point in generalized space may be the same, but the effective equivalent magnitude of displacement motion is different. Therefore, the effect expressed in generalized space must be different; in effect, as well as in magnitude. The number of distributed units of displacement must equal or exceed the representational equivalency of thermal motion in a specific thermal unit to be represented as 1D2dR rather than 1D2dL; thereby, achieving the threshold for the charge effect for that kind of thermal unit. In other words, while participating in the total thermal motion of the emitter, the change of mode of representation allows one or more associated electrons to become represented as having effective displacement motion, individually, and have translational displacement motion separate from that of the emitter. Environmental conditions include normal electron densities for different materials. Electrons are present with all atoms of matter; they are just not required constituents of atoms.

As with other one dimensional effects, the electric charge effect is radially outward in three dimensional space from the source, in a manner more like that of the mass effect than like that of the other one dimensional effect, heat, previously considered. However, in like manner with thermal effects, the charge effect is confined within the specific thermal unit of which it is a member. Heat effects merely modify the point of equilibrium with the normal outward progression from unity and, thereby, interatomic distances. Charge effects are described mathematically in a manner similar to gravitational effects which are referred to generally as field effects. Photon emission is a separation of the photon from the emission reference point and subsequently becomes its own reference point, high or low energy, for a dimensional effect perpendicular to its direction of natural progression.

The electric charge effect is radially outward from the reference point, individual atom or group of atoms, and the magnitude of the effect is, therefore, inversely proportional to the square of the distance in generalized three dimensional space from the center of the Notational Reference Point carrying the charge and is directly proportional to the magnitude of the displacement motion causing the effect. In the case of photons, random directionality taken upon separation of each photon and the geometry of space is responsible for the inverse square law relation for intensity of radiation. Polarization of photons is a function of the emitter. In the case of the electric charge effect being discussed, the diminution of magnitude of the effect is caused strictly by the geometry of the mathematical dimensionality of space. The presence of the motion causing an effect causes the effect to be instantaneously present, the electric charge effect is not propagated through space.

A positive electric displacement (inward in the spatial aspect) can support, with high probability for anything other than transient stability, only a negative 1D2dR displacement, while a negative electric displacement (inward in the time aspect) can support only a positive 1D2dR displacement. Since positive 1D2dR units of displacement can be added only to negative electric displacements, with other than transient stability, they should be named as a positive charge. Historical precedent overrides this naming by referring to such charges, added to atoms identified as having the requisite negative displacements, as the negative (-) electric charge.

By similar arguments, the negative 1D2dR displacement motion added to atoms or thermal units having only positive rotational displacements is called the positive (+) electric charge.

Any atom normally represented with negative electric displacement can also support negative 1D2dR displacement units by reorientation of the negative electric displacements to a totally positive representation, because an atomic representation involving negative electric displacement can be represented using totally positive displacements. Since the atomic number is the same as the number of equivalent positive electric displacements for atoms of a given element the maximum number of positive1 (+) electric charge units which an atom of an element can support is its atomic number. Because the electric displacements are rotational representations of the entire magnetically rotating structure, the differences of ionization potential required to add charges to the equivalent electric displacement units obtained from magnetic displacement equivalencies is greater than that required to add charges to pre-existing positive electric rotational displacement units.

The positive or negative character of each reference point is based on both the displacement direction and the mode of representation that causes the requirement for designating the reference point. A question of importance is “does the displacement causing the reference point requirement extends from primary motion or from a previous displacement?” From primary motion the displacement must be 1D1dL or 1D2dL. From a 1D1dR displacement the added displacement will be 1D2dR. From a 2D1dR displacement the added displacement will be 2D2dR. The displacement direction of the motion requiring reference point designation is always opposite to that of the direction of displacement of the motion unit from which it extends. The direction in time, positively or negatively, from which the newly added reference point displacement extends defines whether the effect generated by the new displacement unit is referred to as a positive or negative reference phenomena.

Table 7: Reference Points

type of motion unit requiring reference point designation

effect identified as

direction of motion unit from which reference point motion extends

type of reference point

in space

in time

1D2dL + primary

emission of photon

primary positive

primary positive


positive 1D1dR displacement

increase mass




negative 1D1dR displacement

decrease mass



positive 1D2dL extends from primary





positive 1D2dR displacement

negative electric charge




positive 1D2dR displacement

positive electric charge




The positive 1D2dR displacement unit of motion extends from a negative electric displacement, 1D1dR. The positive 1D2dR displacement unit has its spatial aspect extending in the positive rotational direction in space and its time aspect extending in the negative temporal rotational direction. Since the time aspect of the new unit of displacement is now extending from the negative datum of time toward more positive values, the negative* charge, a positive 1D2dR displacement, causes the atom, to which it is attached, to act as a negative reference point for the electrostatic charge effect.

A positive electric displacement, or the electric equivalent of a magnetic displacement, from which the positive* charge motion extends, is a unit of motion in which the space aspect is negatively oriented with its time aspect positively oriented. The negative 1D2dR displacement unit responsible for the positive* charge requires a change of time direction from positive to negative toward less positive values. It is this change from the normal positive direction of the time aspect of a positive electric displacement to negative in a negative 1D2dR displacement that causes this motion to be designated a positive reference point for electric field effects in addition to designation of the atom as a positive gravitational reference point.

The effect of the displacement motion causing either electric charge is outward from the atomic reference point. Common electric charge reference points will move outward from each other while opposite charge reference points will move toward each other because each effect is toward the starting point of the opposite charge reference point effect. The movement of the reference points carries the charged atoms or groups of atoms toward or away from each other in generalized dimensional space according to the character of the reference points from which the charge effects extend. Like charges repel, move apart, while unlike charges attract, move toward each other in space.29

The outward movement of like charges, repulsion, is reduced to a negligible, or at least immeasurable, amount within a relatively short distance. The situation between unlike reference points is very much different from that of like charges because the movement toward each other in space brings the charge carriers into contiguity. Oppositely oriented atomic rotations, continuous along the same time line between contiguous structural units, will offset, completely or partially, the effect of the other for a potentially stable chemical orientation. These may be either 1D1dR >< 1D1dR or 2D1dR >< 1D1dR. Subsequent separation of the atomic or molecular units may result because of unbalanced orientations; that is a different matter, entirely, from the required orientation for charge approach.

Contact between oppositely charged atomic structures brings the oppositely oriented 1D2dR displacements into contiguity because of the alignment of electric displacements of the atoms carrying the charges. Immediately upon passing the outer gravitational limit and achieving unit distance separation, the continuation of motion causes the atoms or polyatomic groups to take equilibrium distance positions in equivalent space corresponding to appropriate orientation relations. Atomic orientations being in the same temporal dimension causes the oppositely directed 1D2dR motions to be in the same temporal dimension. The presence of oppositely directed 1D2dR displacement motions in the same temporal dimension of a unit of motion is an unstable situation.

Even though the 2dR motions are displaced from unity in opposite scalar directions, they are not opposites in the same sense that 1dR motions are oppositely oriented. The effect of a 1dR motion is a mass effect, while that of a 2dR motion is a charge effect. A 2dL displacement can be associated with primary motion whether that primary unit is associated with an atomic coordinate system or not, whereas, a 1dR displacement is stable only in an atomic or sub-atomic coordinate system, thereby, a 2dR motion is stable only in association with an atomic reference point. Since oppositely directed 1D2dR displacements are not stable in the same dimension of primary motion, the 2dR motions transfer to and stay with successive units of primary motion as 1D2dL effects. This effectively separates the charges from the displacement motion of the atoms to become observable as the emission of the simplest of oscillational units, photons of both high frequency and low frequency. Any discrepancy between symmetrical displacements from unity of these photons is retained with the thermal unit as thermal oscillation of some amount or separated as charged electrons, thereby accounting for any temperature change of the matter portion of the system occurring during discharge, as well as other extreme heat effects.

Scintillation experiments confirm the emission of photons upon annihilation of electric charges. The emitted photons may be at any angular relation to each other due to randomness of direction for representation of primary motion in space, with simultaneous or very nearly sequential emission: i.e., no more than a few natural time units apart. Simultaneity experiments have not to my knowledge been conducted up to the present time. Such experiments would have to show both the temporal and frequency relation between the low and high frequency emissions, not an easy task with present technology.

Although quite an important agent for both chemical and physical change in the low temperature environments of planetary surfaces, the electric charge is a temporary appendage because of the relative ease of attaching and detaching 1D2dR units of motion to material particles by an appropriate force couple, including the photoelectric effect. The outcome of many physical events is often influenced more by the temporary presence of electric charges than by the basic motions of atoms and the movements and orientations resulting therefrom. It should still be recognized that electric charges are transient appendages very much like thermal oscillations and kinetic motions of atoms of matter.30

Electrons and Electric Charge

A difference of considerable importance is that of the addition of electric displacement to the single photon rotational base and the addition of a unit of electric rotation, 1D1dR, to an atom which has effective magnetic displacement. Electric displacement added to an atom, which is already an effective speed less than unity, modifies the total effective displacement, whereas an electric displacement added to the single photon rotational base modifies non-effective speed displacement. This resultant motion is from zero displacement, rather than from an effective displacement reference.31

Recall the descriptions for a negative displacement; a unit of motion composed of a unit of space in the normal positive direction and a unit of time in the negative direction. In a scalar magnitudinal sense the inward time aspect of the negative electric displacement unit of motion can be thought of as offsetting the effect of the unit of positively oriented time of the unit of positive displacement used to form the material sector rotational base. Adding a unit of negative electric displacement motion to the single photon rotational base creates a structure that is effectively a unit of negatively oriented space having rotational directionality.

The net positive displacement of atoms is oriented negatively in space and positively in time; thus, atoms are effectively excess rotationally represented time structures. As rotationally represented units of space, electrons may form relations with the rotationally directed time aspects of the positive displacements of atoms, and thereby, move from atom to atom as effective motion. The specific directionality of the displacements of each kind of atom determines not only the orientations of which each is capable and their effective chemistry and interatomic distance characteristics, but also their electron carrying capacities and the freedom with which those electrons can be transferred at various temperatures.

The negative 1D1dR displacements of the non-metals effectively reduce the available excess time both dimensionally and quantitatively. The excess time of the magnetic displacements of atoms is of sufficiently greater energy than that of the electric displacements as to reduce the freedom of the rotationally represented space units for maintaining motion with positive magnetic displacement time. Thus, the elements of Divisions I, II, and III provide greater freedom of movement for the rotating space units than do the elements of Division IV in their ground states. Electric displacements involved in orienting atoms for compound formation are not available for relating to the rotating space units. Most normal valence compounds in pure solid form are poor conductors because they provide inadequate dimensionality for the rotating space units. The presence of only Division IV elements in complex polyatomic structures usually reduces the freedom of movement of the rotating space units to such a level that the substances are referred to as insulators. Elements that are borderline between Divisions III and IV provide degrees of freedom that are environmentally, including temperature, dependent for movement of the uncharged electrons, and are referred to as semi-conductors. The rotating space units may not have 1D2dR displacement units associated therewith, and therefore, not exhibit charge effects. The presence of uncharged electrons with the atoms of a substance makes it easier for the compound structures (atoms plus extra rotational space units) to accept a charge by formation of charge couples.

Within the gravitational limits of any galaxy, uncharged free electrons, rotating space units without charge can exist only in association with atoms of matter. Outside the gravitational limits of a galaxy is often referred to as free space. The rotating space units without charge cannot move freely within galactic space because the relation of space to space is not motion. The presence of electric charge makes it possible for these units of rotating space to become free from atoms of matter because the 1D2dR displacement unit is a positive displacement which provides extra positively oriented rotationally represented time, thus the charged electron is effective motion and can exist on its own and be identified as a separate physical entity.

Rotational Oscillations: Two-Dimensional

Atoms of the theoretical universe of motion are basically composed of displacement motions represented as 2D1dR, two dimensional unidirectional rotationally represented displacement motion structures, most of which also have 1D1dR, one dimensional unidirectional rotationally represented displacements. For certain kinds of atoms a condition exists in which a quantity of 1D2dL motion is sufficient for some of the total two directional motion to be converted by a zero energy conversion process to 2D2dR displacement motion.

Even though the 2D2dR displacement motion is being described subsequent to the discussion of 1D2dR displacements, the 2D2dR displacement actually has a higher probability of being represented than does the 1D2dR displacement. The reason for there being a lower incidence of the appearance of 2D2dR effects is caused by the inability of most atomic structures to support that type of displacement. All atomic structures are able to support 1D2dR displacement motions. For those structural representations having high probability for supporting 2D2dR displacements, the effects of the 2D2dR displacements may always be present at temperatures far below the threshold for zero energy conversion of heat effects to electric charge effects, 1D2dL to 1D2dR.

Since magnetic displacements of the atoms are positive 2D1dR displacements, the added magnetic charge 2D2dR displacement motion is a negative displacement and must appear as a property extending from a positive displacement. Because each magnetic displacement is oriented negatively in space and positively in time, both magnetic field directions are outward from positive reference points toward more negative values. Since there is no pre-existing terminology which can dictate the nomenclature, the material sector magnetic charge is called a negative magnetic charge because it is a negative 2D2dR displacement, positively directed in space and negatively directed in time. Positively displaced 2D2dR units of motion cannot be supported directly by atoms of material sector matter and, therefore, are not observed under normal material sector planetary surface conditions in three dimensional space.

Magnetic displacements apply to both rotating systems of an atom, and therefore, atoms that can support magnetic charges will carry increments of two magnetic charges. Magnetic charges exist only in pairs.32 The combination of magnetic and electric displacements of iron provides the clue to understanding the structural representations that are capable of supporting magnetic charges. The magnetic displacements must be asymmetrical and an electric 8R must be complete relative to the individual reference system.33

Larson’s description for the division of the magnetic effect between the two units of magnetic charge carried by a magnetically charged atom as modified by the terminology that is adopted in this introduction is as follows: Each of the two 2D2dR displacements has in common the dimension of normal progression represented in three dimensional space, the electric dimension, and have the other effects of the 2D2dR motions distributed around the other two dimensions of the individual three dimensional system. This is tantamount to saying that together the 2D2dR displacements define the positive or negative character of the reference point and the other dimensions determine the manner of distributing the effect in generalized space. The distributed motion effectively divides the magnetically charged atom perpendicular to the dimension of progression in space so that each such atom presents a distributed two dimensional inverse square law effect in its environment.

From one side, the rotation appears to be clockwise while from the other side it appears to be counterclockwise. The scalar direction outward from a clockwise rotation is the opposite of the outward direction from a counter-clockwise rotation, and therefore, the magnetically charged atom presents both a north reference pole and a south reference pole. The interactions of magnetic poles is understood in terms similar to those used in conjunction with electric charge effects, making appropriate changes of wording as needed. Separation of magnetic charges from oppositely oriented interacting magnetically charged atoms does not occur for two reasons: the opposite orientations are not intrinsically oppositely directed scalar motions and the magnetic charges must remain in pairs.

Magnetic reference points (two dimensional) have no effect on electric reference points (one dimensional) that are stationary relative to them because they are different type reference points, not merely opposite as are positive and negative electric reference points. The fields are not interacting because the “fields” are merely the mathematical descriptions for the directionalized magnitudes of effects. The electric charge is one dimensional, and thus, scalar effects for electric reference points are radially outward from their spatially defined locations. Magnetic charges are two dimensional, and therefore, north seeking and south seeking effects are displayed as two dimensional effects. Linear movement of an electric charge in generalized space adds a second dimension to the electric charge effect, thereby creating a two dimensional effect and allowing interaction of the previously inherent one dimensional effect with the two dimensional magnetic field effect. Charged or uncharged electrons interact with the two dimensionality of the magnetic field effect when moving at less than light speed relative to the magnetic field. The resultant direction of movement in generalized space is perpendicular to both the vectorial direction of movement of the electric charge effect and the directions defined for the magnetic reference point field effects.

As magnetically charged atoms interact the line of atoms grows so that one end of the line is a north reference pole while the opposite end is a south reference pole and the intervening atoms offset each other in neutral combinations similar to orientations of neutral groups in chemical combinations. A magnetically oriented line of atoms has a toroidally shaped field effect. Any physical separation of the line of magnetically oriented atoms always leaves north and south reference points un-neutralized and the material still magnetically charged.

Summarizing the foregoing comments, we find that in a universe of motion gravitation is the effect of inward progression toward all natural locations of all atoms of Material Sector matter. Since the three dimensional reference system of space cannot distinguish between positive and negative scalar directions, all directions are outward from the source of an effect. The concept of reference points must be used to distinguish among the effects distributed by the required directional characteristic of each unit of displacement and the random orientation of reference point coordinate systems in space.

An Electric Current

The question naturally arises about an effect that initially seems to be a simple extension of the ideas of electric charge effects, “What is an electric current?” Correlation of experimentally observed facts with the development of the consequences of the postulates for a universe of motion show that static electric effects are the result of 1D2dR motion while current electric effects are the result of continuous direction movement of sub-atomic particles, particularly electrons. It is immaterial whether the moving sub-atomic particles are electrically charged or not.

Since the electric current is defined as a quantity (q) per unit time (t) and described as a number of electrons per unit time, the identification of the electric current as a speed, s/t, gives further evidence that the unit of quantity in electrical phenomena is equivalent to a unit of space.

A unit of energy has the same status in all phenomena and has been shown to have the dimensions t/s, the electromotive force, V, is also shown to have the dimensions of force, in general.34

Energy per unit time = power; t/s / t = 1/s

power = current volts;

volts = power / current;

Equation 17: Voltage as Force

$$\frac{\frac{1}{s}}{\frac{s}{t}} = \frac{1}{s} \times \frac{t}{s} = \frac{t}{s^2}$$

Equation 18: V = IR

$$V = IR; R=\frac{V}{I} = \frac{\frac{t}{s^2}}{\frac{s}{t}} = \frac{t}{s^2}\times \frac{t}{s} = \frac{t^2}{s^3}$$

$$P = I^2 R; R=\frac{P}{I^2} = \frac{\frac{1}{s}}{\left( \frac{s}{t} \right)^2} = \frac{1}{s}\times \frac{t^2}{s^2} = \frac{t^2}{s^3}$$

E and V are sometimes used interchangeably for volts and electromotive force. E is used here to symbolize energy.

Equation 19: E = mv2

$$E = Pt; E = I^2 Rt = RtI^2 = \left(\frac{t^2}{s^3} \times t\right ) \times \left(\frac{s}{t} \right ) = \frac{t^3}{s^3} \times \left( \frac{s}{t} \right )^2 = mv^2$$

Kinetic energy is defined as the energy of movement in one direction of one dimension: in one of two possible directions.

Equation 20: Kinetic Energy

$$K.E. = \frac{1}{2} mv^2$$

Using the various relations of electrical phenomena, natural unit equivalent values are derived.35

$q = \frac{2.89366 \times 10^{14} esu / g_{eq}}{6.02486 \times 10^{23} nat.u. / g_{eq}} = 4.80287 \times 10^{-10} esu / nat.u.$ of electric quantity.

The Faraday constant, 9.648456104 c/g-eq, relates the quantity of electricity and the mass involved in electrolytic action. Since one (1) ampere equals one coulomb per second, c/sec can be rewritten as

$$1 Ampere = \frac{\frac{9.648456\times10^4 c / g_{eq}}{6.02486\times10^{23} nat.u. / g_{eq}}}{1.520655\times10^{-16} sec / nat.u.} = 1.05313\times10^{-3} c / sec / nat.u.$$

= 1.05313 milliamp per natural unit

Using the natural unit of current which is equivalent to the natural unit of speed, the speed of light 2.997931010 cm/sec.

$$\frac{\frac{c}{sec}}{\frac{cm}{sec}} \times \frac{cm}{nat.u.} = \frac{c}{nat.u.}= 1.60145\times10^{19} coulomb$$

is recognized as the elementary unit of charge, which has been assumed to be the unit magnitude for all electrical phenomena.

The discussion in Chapter 4 and on page 98 concerning the structure of electrons and atoms of matter showed that uncharged electrons can exist only in association with atoms of matter. Addition of 1D2dR motion to each by appropriate force couples can cause the separation of the electrons from the atoms by creation of the negative charges on electrons and positive charges on atoms resulting in ion-electron pair formation.

An electric current has been shown to consist of the movement from atom to atom in a specific direction of a sufficient quantity of electrons for a sufficient amount of progressive time to have an identifiable effect. For long periods of time the current is referred to as direct, but if the direction periodically changes the current is said to be alternating with a definable frequency.

As stated on page 86, thermal motion is continually being redistributed within each sample of matter and with its environment. Thermal motions also cause a redistribution of electrons among atoms, as well as, a redistribution of the thermal oscillations among atoms in all phases of matter. Thus, thermal motions may be thought of as micro currents at random frequencies. Forced redistribution of thermal energies by the application of a source of heat energy to a sample of matter would thereby cause movement of electrons among the thermally stable structural units composing the sample. The specific rate at which the thermal energies are transferred within the sample is normally referred to as the rate of thermal conductivity, which is also a measure of the electron density within the sample and the rate at which redistribution of electron densities is achieved at specific temperatures.

The system of units used in electrical phenomena was developed along lines which failed to recognize the true character of the entities involved. Thereby, the relationship of the electrical and mechanical units of measure to the natural system has required the identification of the physical quantity relating the electrical and mechanical units of measure. From a mathematical viewpoint it makes no difference whether mass moves through space or space moves through the mass. The result is still momentum, a quantity of velocity, quantity of space per quantity of time by which to define the motion in two dimensions. Uncharged electrons moving through matter as an electric current is the effective source of current phenomena, as well as being responsible, at least in part, for thermal conductivity of matter. Changes in the equilibrium concentrations of electrons in matter constitutes a pressure resulting in a force due to the pressure gradient; a voltage difference.

Any apparent error in the numerical values are a direct result of the values of the Rydberg constant and the Avogadro number chosen as being more consistent throughout all chemical and physical correlations made with original data, not subsequently modified for infinite mass interpretations resulting from the nuclear atom concept.

Limits of Existence: Combinations of Modes of Motion

It is the combination that exists before a transition that is stable and represents the limit of stability with respect to that particular type of transition involving that particular combination, whereas the combination results in instability. The first limit for combining displaced motions is observed in our gravitationally bound environment among photons. Low, moderate and even high energy photons are not observed to directly interact until the energy requirement is met to form the electron-positron pair. This does not mean that other photon combinations do not occur in some part of the universe. It is just that our definition of evidence requires the presence of matter.

The next kind of limit observed is between atoms of matter and thermal frequency photons in which the arrangement, which the atoms or molecules take at very low temperatures, the solid phase, becomes modified to appear as the liquid phase of matter. This is the process of melting and the temperature at which the transition occurs for each substance is its melting point. A second limit of the same type is the critical temperature required of an individual molecule to leave the surface of either condensed phase; i.e., solid or liquid; to enter the gas phase. It is the probability distribution of thermal photons among the atoms and molecules of a given substance and the orientation required of the individual atoms in the substance that causes the appearance of specific melting points and boiling points.

The photoelectric effect and the specific energy requirements of the different kinds of materials for the initiation of the effect is the next observed example of a limit for the existence of stable combinations of different modes of motion. Notice that in each and every case, the modifications that occur exhibit either simpler rotational combinations; i.e., fewer atoms per molecule or radical, whether electrically charged or not; and/or the rate of temperature change experienced per thermal photon added; i.e., the specific heat of the material changes. The process involving collision of high energy electrons with various materials for the purpose of obtaining photons of specific frequencies; e.g., x-rays; is, of course, utilizing this same effect in the opposite direction relative to unity.

Displacement Limits

The first kind of displacement limit is almost obvious; it takes a total of eight (8) electric displacement units to reach an equivalent of zero rotational displacement. Valences for orientation of atoms result from this relationship, as well as for electric and magnetic displacements.

The length of each row of the periodic chart of the elements is limited by the 2n2 relationship, as also is the maximum number of elements which can be constructed by compounding rotationally directed displaced motion with linear vibrational units of displacement motion. The sequence numbers or atomic numbers of the inert gases—2, 10, 18, 36, 54, and 86—result from the relationship of the number of electric displacements equivalent to a given minimum effective magnetic displacement. Number 118 is unstable due to zero point equivalence of the required vibrational and rotational displacements. Thus the maximum number of possible elements is 117.

Because the natural atomic mass of an atom is twice its atomic number, the maximum value or limit for stable atomic mass is one mass unit more than twice 117 or 235. As soon as that total effective displacement mass is exceeded by the summation of positive displacements of any sort, the resulting structure is unstable and some of the mass effect must be ejected by either rotational or vibrational displacement being converted to linear vibrational displacement, photon emission, or the equivalent of some stable rotational structure being removed, alpha emission, beta emission, or fission. Thus, destructive radioactivity of various isotopes is easily explained. Equivalent positive electric displacement of any specific atomic structure may include: magnetically charged neutrinos which when captured cause the atom to exhibit higher than natural atomic mass; electric charges, magnetic charges, and distributed thermal vibrations. Thus, each element has a limiting total displacement of all kinds for which it is stable. All displacements have their limit in the equivalence of two linear units to eight one Dimensional one direction rotationally represented units and the equivalence of primary motion and equivalent primary motion in all three dimensions of either space or time. Positive displacements and negative displacements, both linearly and rotationally represented, are only means of achieving the conditions of primary motion through reaching equivalent primary motion.

Thermal Limits

We have observed the development of the ideas of solid phase limits and liquid phase limits resulting from the presence of thermal motion. We have also found that thermal motion can be converted to electric charge, and to magnetic charge in some elements, and eventually that the combination of all of these motions can bring about a conversion of some of the rotational motion of an atom to other modes of representation and frequencies of radiation. In all atoms the geometric summation of electric charge motions and thermal motions with the unidirectional rotationally represented displacements of the basic structure of atoms may reach the limit for the 8R, 2L equivalence at the same value of displacement as the negative displacement of the photons being rotated. At the specific temperature at which the equivalent positive electric displacement of the normal magnetic and electric rotations for atoms of a given element is reached by equivalence of the rotational vibrations (electric charges, magnetic charges, charged neutrinos) combined with distributed thermal vibrations, a point of mass instability occurs which causes spontaneous conversion of an appropriate amount of the net motion, both positively and negatively displaced, to be separated and emitted as photons, atoms, or sub-atom structures along with an appropriate change of the net total equivalent positive electric displacement of the atoms in question. This is called the thermal destructive limit for that kind of atom.36 At this destructive temperature limit, all atoms exhibiting the mass equivalent of 236 undergo a spontaneous conversion of some of their mass, t3/s3, to an equivalent energy, t/s, which is emitted as radiation.

There are other limits which are dependent on aspects of the theory not yet discussed, but which require considerable discussion beyond the fundamental concepts of scalar motion. Even though no attempt has been made to create a definitive description of all of the phenomena related to thermal effects, electric charges, electric currents, magnetic effects, or any other specific phenomena, it is hoped that the relations discussed will serve to illustrate the validity of the basic postulates for the Reciprocal System of theory and serve as an impetus for further exploration of the conceptual revolution brought about by these new ideas.

1 As presently named. “From a logical standpoint, a rotational vibration with a space displacement should be called a negative charge, since it opposes a positive rotation, while a rotational vibration with a time displacement should be called a positive charge. On this basis, the term “positive” would always refer to to a time displacement (low speed), and the term “negative” would always refer to a space displacement (high speed). Use of the terms in this manner would have some advantages, but so far as the present work is concerned, it does not seem advisable to run the risk of adding further confusion to explanations that are already somewhat handicapped by the unavoidable use of unfamiliar terminology to express relationships not previously recognized. For present purposes, therefore, current usage will be followed, and the charges on positive elements will be designated as positive. This means that the significance of the terms “positive” and “negative” with respect to rotation is reversed in application to charge.” (Basic Properties of Matter, p. 151)

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