As explained in the preceding chapter, in order to bring out the full significance of the hitherto unrecognized physical facts that were discovered in the course of the systematic investigation of the nature and properties of scalar motion, it is necessary to identify the phenomena to which these facts are relevant, and to interpret them in the light of the new information. The areas of physical science outside the region represented in the conventional three-dimensional spatial system of reference are mainly in the realm of astronomy, and the new information now available therefore requires some changes in the views that now prevail in the astronomical field. Inasmuch as many heretofore unrecognized facts of a significant nature, and important consequences thereof, were derived from factual premises in Chapters 5 and 6, and are now to be related with astronomical knowledge, it follows that some major changes in astronomical thought will be required.
Since they are necessary consequences of the newly established facts, these revisions of existing ideas will have to be made regardless of the attitude of the astronomical community, but it is interesting to note that the astronomers have already recognized the implications of the existing problems, and have, to a considerable extent, reconciled themselves to the inevitability of major changes. Harwit summarizes the existing situation in this manner:
The fundamental nature of astrophysical discoveries being made—or remaining to be made—leaves little room for doubt but that a large part of current theory will have to be drastically revised over the next decades.76
The general tendency in astronomical circles is to lay the blame on the physicists, and to join with Hoyle in calling for a “radical revision of the laws of physics.”77 Here are some of the statements that echo this theme:
In some places, too, the extraordinary thought begins to emerge that the concepts of physical science as we appreciate them today in all their complexity may be quite inadequate to provide a scientific description of the ultimate fate of the universe?78 (Bernard Lovell)
Is it possible that the solution to the quasar mystery will involve a fundamental rethinking of the basic physics to which we have been growing accustomed since Albert Einstein’s time?74 (Gerrit Verschuur)
At the present time, the so-called “energy problem” (accounting for the energy of the quasars) is widely considered to be the most important unsolved problem in theoretical astrophysics, and it is believed by some that the final solution will only come after astronomers have rewritten some of the laws of fundamental physics.79 (Simon Mitton)
Whether or not the new facts reported in this work, and their consequences, constitute a “radical revision of the laws of physics” is a matter of opinion, but it is true that they require a radical revision of current ideas in certain areas of astronomy. This may not be just what the astronomers have been asking for, but it cannot be expected that a major change in fundamentals can be accomplished without some significant effect on the superstructure that has been erected on those foundations. It should be no surprise, therefore, when application of the information developed in the preceding chapters leads to some substantial modification of the prevailing views in astronomy as well as in physics.
Most astronomical phenomena are located entirely within the region of three-dimensional space, and are therefore capable of representation in the conventional reference system. It is generally recognized that gravitation is the controlling factor in this region. As we have seen, gravitation is a rotational phenomenon, a rotationally distributed scalar motion. Since it is directed inward, it causes an increasing concentration of this type of motion; that is, the aggregates of matter in the region of three-dimensional space continually increase in size. The astronomers have been slow to realize that this is an inexorable process, dominating the physical situation all the way from sub-atomic particle to giant galaxy, but the following statement by Martin Ryle is an indication that a general understanding is emerging:
What we now need is an understanding of the physical mechanisms involved in the formation of a galaxy from the primeval gas, and its subsequent evolution from this earliest stage to that involving the sudden enormous energy production apparent in radio galaxies and quasars.80
It is evident from observation that, unless the universe is in a relatively early stage of development, there must be some kind of a limitation on the process of aggregation under the influence of gravitation. Otherwise, as Einstein noted, “The stellar universe ought to be a finite island in the infinite ocean of space.”81 Lovell elaborates the same thought in these words:
The application of Newton’s theory of gravitation, in which the attraction between bodies varies inversely as the square of their distance apart, to the large-scale structure of the universe would require that the universe had a centre in which the spatial density of stars and galaxies was a maximum. As we proceed outwards from this centre the spatial density should diminish, until finally at great distances it should be succeeded by an infinite region of emptiness.82
Einstein’s answer to this problem, as in his treatment of the problem resulting from the discovery of the constant speed of light, was to devise a mathematical reconciliation of the conflict by means of an ad hoc modification of the geometry of space. The need for any such dubious expedient in the situation we are now considering is eliminated when it is recognized, as in the quotation from Ryle, that the evolutionary course in the realm of astronomy reaches its climax in events that involve extremely energetic processes, and that there are quite definite limits on the sizes of the aggregates. The individual objects, the largest of which are stars (or stellar systems), reach an upper limit somewhere in the neighborhood of 100 solar masses. “Superstars” with much larger masses appear in many theoretical speculations, but get no support from observation. The aggregates of stars, the largest of which are galaxies, are similarly restricted to the range below about 1012 or 1013 solar masses. As expressed by Hoyle, “Galaxies apparently exist up to a certain limit and not beyond that.”83
The correlation of the energetic events with maximum size is clear. One class of the violent stellar explosions known as supernovae has been identified with the hot massive stars at the upper end of the main sequence. There is also evidence of violent activity in the largest class of galaxies—strong radiation extending over a wide range of frequencies, ejection of matter in clouds and jets, and in some cases definite indications of catastrophic explosions.
As matters now stand, we cannot determine from observation whether space is Euclidean or non-Euclidean, but the need for a departure from Euclidean geometry to resolve the problem cited by Einstein and Lovell in the quotations above is eliminated when the existence of limits on size is recognized. The galaxies are “finite islands in the ocean of space,” but only up to the limiting magnitude. The existence of this limit shows that the loss of mass in the explosive events that characterize the giant galaxies prevents building up any larger aggregates.
The exact nature of the ejecta from these explosions, and from the supernovae, has not yet been definitely established from observation, but obviously some of the matter thrown off in these violent events leaves at very high speeds. The true magnitude of these speeds is not currently known. It is assumed in present-day thinking that they cannot exceed the speed of light. However, as we have seen in the preceding pages, the possible speeds extend into a much higher range. It will be appropriate, therefore, to examine the effects of speeds in the ranges above unity (the speed of light), as they appear on application of the principles established in the earlier chapters, and to compare these effects with the results of observation of the explosion products.
All explosive events generate some low speed (less than unit speed) products. If the explosive forces are isotropic, these products are ejected in all directions as an expanding cloud of matter. If those forces are anisotropic, some, or all, of the products take the form of an identifiable aggregate moving outward from the scene of the explosion. In either case, these are purely phenomena of the three-dimensional region, and they have no bearing on the activity in the upper speed ranges that we are now examining. The explosion products with which we are now concerned are the fast-moving products of explosions that are powerful enough to give some of the ejected fragments speeds greater than that of light.
As brought out in Chapter 6, motion in the intermediate speed range takes place in time (equivalent space) rather than in space, but is otherwise similar. Matter ejected at speeds in excess of unity by an explosion therefore takes the form of a cloud of particles similar to the cloud of particles that is expanding into space at the lower speeds. Here we need to keep in mind that the various scalar motions of an object are independent. It therefore does not necessarily follow that because one of them takes the inverse form—motion in time rather than motion in space—that all of them assume the inverse status. Thus there exist not only the phenomena of spatial motion, and the inverse thereof, but also phenomena of an intermediate character, in which one or more motions of an object attain speeds that put them into the ranges that constitute motion in time, while others remain on the spatial basis. For instance, the motions of the components of the object may be in the intermediate range, while the object itself moves at low speed.
The fastest product of one of the two types of supernova explosion is in this intermediate category. It is an expanding cloud of particles centered on the explosion site (if the explosive forces are isotropic, as observation indicates that they usually are), and identical with the expanding cloud of low speed particles, except that, since the particles are moving with intermediate speeds, they are expanding into time rather than into space.
Because of the directional inversion at the unit level, this expansion reduces the equivalent space, the size of the cloud as seen in the spatial reference system. Thus, if a portion of the explosion products of a supernova attain intermediate speeds, as we may expect in view of the violence of the explosion, the second product is a relatively small aggregate, a small star, of extremely high density, and relatively high surface temperature. The spatial speed imparted to this explosion product as a whole is zero, and the position in space is not altered. The effects of the intermediate explosion speed are internal. Externally, the behavior of the product star is the same as that of a normal star. These characteristics of the intermediate speed product are identical with those of the observed white dwarf star.
The idea of a decrease in the observed size of a physical object by reason of expansion of its constituents into three-dimensional time will no doubt occasion some conceptual difficulty for many readers, not because there is anything illogical or irrational about the idea, but simply because it conflicts with long-standing beliefs about the nature of physical realities. This is the same kind of a situation that science has encountered over and over again since its beginnings some thousands of years ago. Such ideas as a flat earth, a “perfect” unchanging realm in the skies, a geocentric universe, heat as a “substance,” nature’s “abhorrence” of a vacuum, spontaneous generation of life, and so on, were just as firmly implanted in the minds of our ancestors as the prevailing concept of the nature of time is in the human minds of today. And just as those cherished, and strongly defended, ideas had to be discarded, or appropriately modified, when definite evidence to the contrary was forthcoming, so the currently prevailing assumptions about time will have to be altered to the extent required by the facts uncovered in the scalar motion investigation. The newly discovered basic facts are clear and undeniable once they are brought to light, and science has no option but to accommodate itself to them.
As will be demonstrated in the pages that follow, the scalar motion findings that provide this new explanation of the properties of the white dwarf stars also explain a wide variety of other recently discovered astronomical phenomena, including some that have no explanation at all in terms of current astrophysical theory. Before undertaking an examination of these other phenomena, however, it may be helpful to those who are still troubled about the idea of an upside-down density relationship if we take a look at a situation in which the inverse density gradient is clearly demonstrated.
In our ordinary experience, the components of a heterogeneous fluid separate according to density, if not continually stirred. The heavier molecules migrate to the bottom of the container, and the lighter ones accumulate at the top. The same kind of a separation also takes place in ordinary stars. Some mixing may occur by reason of rotation of the star, but the amount of rotation is not usually sufficient to eliminate the separation; it merely reduces the extent to which the separation is carried. The center of the star is the “bottom” from a gravitational standpoint, and in an ordinary star the heaviest elements accumulate preferentially in the central regions, while the outer layers are enriched in hydrogen, the lightest element. Since hydrogen is the predominant constituent of the star, it is difficult to confirm the expected small amount of enrichment, but nothing that is now known is inconsistent with the conclusion that the normal kind of separation by density occurs.
On the basis of the explanation of the structure of the white dwarf stars that has just been given, the density gradient in these stars should be inverse. The region in the center of the star is the region of greatest compression in time, which is equivalent to expansion in space. The center of the star is thus the region of least density, while the surface layers have the highest density. The surface layers of the white dwarf should therefore be preferentially enriched in helium, the heavier of the two principal constituents of the star, and the center of the star should be almost entirely hydrogen.
A review article by James Liebert in the 1980 Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics supplies the information needed in order to compare these conclusions with the results of observation. This comparison is unequivocally in favor of the existence of the inverse density gradient. Liebert reports that the “cooler helium-rich stars” are “the most numerous kind of white dwarf,” and that some have almost pure helium atmospheres. “The existence of nearly pure helium atmosphere degenerates over a wide range of temperatures has long been a puzzle,” he says. The existence of an inverse density gradient in the white dwarfs solves the puzzle. The helium accumulates in the outer layers because these are the regions of greatest density in the white dwarfs.
These findings with respect to the helium concentration are further confirmed by Liebert’s report on the behavior of elements heavier than helium, commonly lumped together as “metals” in discussions of stellar composition. There is some inflow of matter into these stars from the environment, the metal content of which is known. Like the helium, these incoming metals should preferentially accumulate in the regions of greatest density, the outer layers of the white dwarfs. Liebert describes the observed situation in this manner:
The metals in the accreted material should diffuse downward, while hydrogen should remain in the convective layer. Thus the predicted metals-to-hydrogen ratio should be at or below solar (interstellar) values, yet real DF-DG-DK stars have calcium-to hydrogen abundance ratios ranging from about solar to well above solar.
Here, again, as in the helium distribution, the verdict is unequivocal. The larger concentration of the heavier elements in the outer regions definitely identifies these as the regions of greatest density, a result that is inexplicable on the basis of conventional physical theory. Liebert admits that no plausible explanation on the basis of current astronomical thought is known. The only suggestion that he mentions is that the accretion of hydrogen might be blocked by some kind of a mechanism, a far-fetched idea without the least support from observation. Here, then, is a positive demonstration of the inverse density gradient that is required when the white dwarf stars are identified as objects whose components are moving with speeds in the intermediate range. The light molecules sink to the bottom (the center of the star) while the heavy molecules remain on top, just as they must if the constituents of the star are expanding into time.
The white dwarfs were the first of a class of compact astronomical objects to be discovered. Almost fifty years elapsed before the next discovery. In the meantime a theory, based on a set of ad hoc assumptions, was formulated to explain the unusual features of the white dwarfs, and by the time the next objects of this class appeared on the scene the increased acceptance that comes with familiarity had given the white dwarf theory a safe place in astronomical thought. Since this theory was specifically tailored to the white dwarfs, it was not applicable to the new compact objects, the quasars, and efforts (so far not very successful) had to be made to develop a new theory for the quasars. A few years later the pulsars joined the group, and again a new theory was required. Fortunately for the theorists, relatively little is known about the basic features of the pulsars, and a theory based on the assumed existence of a hypothetical class of objects called neutron stars was found to be capable of being stretched far enough to cover most of the available items of knowledge. It could also be adapted to most members of a class of compact x-ray emitters subsequently located, but other members of this class were too large to fit within the limits calculated for the white dwarfs and neutron stars. The black hole hypothesis was invoked to meet this situation.
So in order to explain the different astronomical manifestations of one physical phenomenon—extremely high density—we have an ever-growing multitude of separate theories, one for the white dwarfs, one for the pulsars, at least two for the x-ray emitters, several for the dense cores of certain types of galaxies, and no one knows how many for the quasars. By this time it should be evident, even without the new information derived from the investigation reported in this present work, that a complete overhaul of the theory of the compact objects is essential in order to eliminate the extraordinary diversity of ideas applied to this one phenomenon. Their common feature is the extremely high density, and the contribution of this volume is to identify the cause of that density as speeds in the intermediate range, between one and two times the speed of light. This explanation is applicable to all of the observed types of compact object, regardless of size, and regardless of whether the components of the object are particles or stars.
On the basis of this explanation, all of the compact objects are explosion products. This is currently conceded in astronomical thought, except in the case of the dense galactic cores, which are still in the “mystery” category. This limitation implies that the cause of the high density is some aspect of the explosion process. It is conceivable that a violent explosion might actually be a combination explosion and implosion that would leave a compact remnant at the explosion site, as currently believed, but the details of this hypothetical process are vague. Furthermore, no one has bothered to explain how an implosion can produce the kind of high translational speeds that are observed features of all quasars, most pulsars, and many x-ray emitters. The known feature of violent explosions that can explain the behavior of all of these compact objects is an ejection speed in the ranges above unity; that is, the explanation is forthcoming if the properties of scalar motion, as described in the preceding pages, are taken into consideration.
We have been able to identify the explosion that produces a white dwarf as a supernova, because it must be a single star in order to have a product that is single and of stellar size. There is observational evidence indicating that explosions involving galaxies, or large segments thereof, also occur. The exact nature of the galactic explosions and their products is still open to many questions, as the data from observation are incomplete and difficult to interpret, but we can deduce that the intensity of such an explosion is substantially greater than that of a supernova, a very much smaller aggregate of matter. It can therefore be concluded that the maximum speeds of the galactic ejecta are substantially higher than those of the supernova products that constitute the white dwarfs, and are probably in the ultra high range. We can also deduce that since the galaxies are aggregates of stars rather than aggregates of particles, the ejected matter will consist, in part, of stars. Thus, just as the intermediate speed product of the explosion of a star is a smaller star, the ultra high speed product of the explosion of a galaxy should be a smaller galaxy, a galactic fragment.
Furthermore, as we found in Chapter 6, the ultra high speed has a spatial component. Instead of remaining at the explosion site in the manner of the white dwarf, the product of the galactic explosion, the galactic fragment, moves outward from the scene of the explosion at a high rate of speed. Although the explosion speed itself is in the ultra high range from the start, the net speed of the ejected fragment remains at a lower level for a considerable period of time because the inward gravitational motion in the explosion dimensions has to be overcome before the explosion speed can be fully effective. In the interim the fast-moving galactic fragment is observable.
Let us see then just how this fragment should appear to observation. First, we can deduce that the explosion that imparted ultra high speed to the fragment as a whole applied some of its energy to accelerating the constituent stars. The stellar speeds will no doubt be less than that of the aggregate, but we can conclude that at least a large proportion of them will be in the next lower speed range, intermediate speed. On this basis, the stars of the ultra high speed fragment, like the particles of which the white dwarf star is composed, are expanding into time. This explosion product is thus a white dwarf galaxy; not a galaxy of white dwarf stars, but a galaxy that, aside from its high outward speed, has the characteristic white dwarf properties, a high energy density and an abnormally small size.
These white dwarf characteristics result from the intermediate speeds of the stars in the ejected fragment. Some further distinctive properties are contributed by the ultra high speed of the fragment as a whole. As explained in Chapter 6, ultra high speed involves motion in time (equivalent space) in one dimension and motion in space in another. One of these scalar dimensions is coincident with the dimension of the conventional spatial reference system, and the redshift of the galactic fragment reflects the total speed in this dimension. Since this includes half of the explosion speed, as well as the normal recession speed due to the outward motion of the natural reference system, the redshift of the galactic fragment is much greater than that of an ordinary galaxy at the same spatial distance.
These are the properties of galactic fragments ejected at ultra high speeds by violent explosions, as defined by the factual information developed in the preceding pages. What we now want to know is whether there are any observed objects that have these same properties, and can therefore be identified as the fast-moving explosion products. The answer is clear. The objects known as quasars answer the description; they are apparently small galaxies or galactic fragments; they are abnormally small for objects of this class; their energy output is abnormally high relative to their sizes; and their redshifts are far above those of any other known objects.
The origin of the quasar redshifts is one of the most controversial subjects in present-day astronomy. The great majority of the astronomers accept the “cosmological” explanation, which ascribes the entire redshift to the normal galactic recession, and thus places the quasars at extreme distances. A relatively small, but persistent, group of dissenters challenges this conclusion, and contends that these objects are actually much closer, a hypothesis that requires some of the redshift to be produced by something other than the normal recession. The debate has continued ever since the very large redshifts were discovered, but the question is no closer to resolution. The problem is that there is a head-on collision between redshift theory and energy generation theory. If the redshifts are cosmological, then the indicated energy emission is so enormous that no known process can come anywhere near accounting for it. On the other hand, if the quasars are closer, so that the energy emission can be explained, then a new explanation has to be found for the excess redshift. Obviously something has to give. One or the other of the two limiting assumptions has to be abandoned.
For some reason, the logic of which is difficult to understand, the majority of astronomers seem to believe that the redshift alternative is the only one that requires a revision or extension of existing physical theory. The argument most frequently advanced against the contentions of those who favor a non—cosmological explanation of the redshifts is that a hypothesis that requires a change in physical theory should be accepted only as a last resort. Dennis Sciama puts the case in this manner:
My own view is that in discussing these localised phenomena, one should work extremely hard to fit them into the accepted laws of physics. Only after persistent failure should one introduce new laws.84
What Sciama and his colleagues are overlooking is that in this case the last resort is the only thing left. If modification or extension of existing theory to explain the redshifts is ruled out, then existing theory must be modified or extended to explain the energy generation. Furthermore, the energy alternative is much more drastic, as it not only requires the existence of some totally new process, but also involves an enormous increase in the scale of the energy generation, a rate far beyond anything heretofore known. All that is required in the redshift situation, on the other hand, is a heretofore unrecognized process. This process is not called upon to explain anything more than is currently regarded as within the capability of the recession process; it merely has to account for the production of the observed redshifts at less distant spatial locations. Even without the new information derived from the scalar motion investigation, it should be evident that the redshift alternative is by far the better prospect for solving the impasse between the redshift and energy generation theories. It is therefore significant that this is the explanation that emerges from the scalar motion study.
Of course, we have to accept the world as we find it, but it is worth noting that here, as in many instances in the preceding pages, the answer that emerges from a development of the consequences of the newly established physical facts takes the simplest and most logical path. Indeed, this answer to the redshift problem does not even involve breaking as much new ground as has been expected by those astronomers who currently favor a non-cosmological explanation. As they see the situation, some new physical process or principle must be invoked in order to add a “non-velocity component” to the recession redshift of the quasars. But we find that no such new process or principle is required. The additional redshift is simply the result of an added speed—one that has hitherto escaped recognition because it is not capable of representation in the conventional spatial reference system.
The reduction in the quasar distances that results when the explosion component of the redshift is taken into consideration also provides the answer to the problem raised when it was discovered that there are individual parts of certain quasars that are moving apart with speeds which, on the basis of the cosmological distance theory, are many times the speed of light. As reported by Verschuur, “This discovery caused quite a furor.”85 Some tentative explanations have been advanced, but “none of these answers is fully satisfactory.”86
Inasmuch as one of these tentative answers was that “the distances to quasars might be incorrectly indicated by their redshifts,” the answer that we now find is the correct one, it is interesting to note the reason that Verschuur advances for rejecting it. If we accept this explanation, he tells us, “we would have to question all redshift measurements and hence the expanding universe model.”86 This is typical of much of the reaction to proposals for modification of existing theories. All too often such proposals are summarily rejected, as in this case, on the strength of arguments based on the general situation defined by existing theory, without any consideration of the possibility that this situation, within which the modification would take place, is itself changed by the new proposal. In the present instance, it is simply assumed that whatever new factors enter into the determination of the redshifts of the quasars, in the context of the new proposal, are applicable to all other redshifts. There is no reason why this should necessarily be true. Indeed, the development in this work shows that it is not true. The explanation that we have derived from factual premises does not affect any redshifts other than those of objects moving with ultra high speeds. The only such redshifts that have been measured are those of the quasars.
When the redshift situation is straightened out, as indicated above, there is full agreement between the conclusions derived from the scalar motion investigation and the principal observed quasar properties. A substantial amount of empirical information about various details of the structure and behavior of these objects has also been accumulated, but a theoretical analysis is required in order to account for these details. The initial results of such an analysis were reported in the author’s 1971 publication Quasars and Pulsars. They will be extended and updated in the astronomical volume of the series, begun with Nothing But Motion, that will present a full description of the theory of a universe of motion.
The objects known as pulsars (with a few possible exceptions) have the outward spatial motions that are characteristic of the quasars, but sizes comparable to those of the white dwarfs. In the light of what has been said in the preceding paragraphs, it is evident that this combination of stellar size and outward motion could be produced by a stellar explosion violent enough to impart ultra high speed to some of the products. The probability that this is the correct explanation of the pulsar origin is indicated by the existence of two distinct kinds of supernovae, Type I and Type II, one of which is considerably more powerful than the other.
The results of the investigation reported in this volume do not identify the cause of the supernova explosion, other than indicating that it takes place at some limiting stage of the evolution of the star; that is, at an age or size limit. The correlation of the explosive activity of the galaxies with a maximum size indicates that the galaxies are also subject to some kind of an evolutionary limit, but there is evidence to suggest that the primary events in the galactic case are stellar explosions rather than actual galactic processes. One such indication comes from the previously mentioned evidence of the existence of dense cores in certain galaxies. On the basis of the information developed in the preceding pages, the abnormal density of these cores is due to the same cause as the extremely high density of the white dwarfs, the quasars, and other compact astronomical objects; that is, speeds in the intermediate range, between one and two times the speed of light. Our galaxy has a relatively small core of this nature. M87, the closest giant, has a much larger and much denser core. Radiation at radio frequencies, which is apparently related to the activity in the core, shows a similar correlation with the size of the galaxy.
This pattern suggests that the accumulation of matter with speeds in the higher ranges begins in the early spiral stage, and continues at an accelerating rate, reaching a climax in the giant galaxies when the confined material blows out a section of the overlying structure of the galaxy in the manner of a boiler explosion. On this basis, it might be expected that there would be some instances in which the fast-moving material in the core accumulates faster than normal, or the galaxy grows more slowly than usual, so that the breakthrough comes at an earlier stage, with less violent results. Such behavior is observed in a class of spiral galaxies, named after their discoverer as Seyferts, which are emitting energy at a rate “as much as 100 times the total emission of energy from an ordinary galaxy like ours,”87 mainly from a small central nucleus. It also appears that there are “periodic explosions in the Seyfert nucleus that blast debris into the surrounding regions.”88
All of these observations are in accord with the tentative identification of the nature of the explosive process in the galaxies suggested by the presence of dense cores in the older galaxies. In the context of present-day astronomical theory, however, this explanation is ruled out by the absence of any known means of confining the fast-moving matter in the core of the galaxy. The answer to this problem was deduced from established facts in Chapter 6.
At the point where we have identified the quasars as the ultra high speed products of the galactic explosions that occur when the galaxies reach their evolutionary limit, and have confirmed the identification by a comparison of properties, we have arrived at the observational limit. Our findings as to what happens to these objects beyond this stage cannot be verified by comparison with data from observation. But the fact that the results of successive additions of increments of speed, as deduced in the manner described in Chapter 6, are in full agreement with the observations as far as observation can penetrate is a strong indication that they are correct beyond this point as well.
On this basis, the net speed of the quasar continues to increase as the effect of gravitation is gradually eliminated, and ultimately it reaches the two-unit level. As noted in Chapter 6, this is the effective sector boundary. In the boundary zone the moving object is subject to influences of both the material and cosmic sectors. It is still concentrated in space, and is therefore subject to spatial contacts and processes, but the gravitational effects are in time. The subsequent course of this object depends on the relative magnitudes of the opposing effects. Ordinarily gravitation prevails, and the quasar enters the cosmic sector, becoming unobservable.
The result of this exit of the quasars from the observational zone at a limiting net speed is to impose a rather sharp cut-off point on the quasar life span and redshift. The existence of this cut-off is recognized by the astronomers, but because they have not yet discovered the explosion speeds and their results, they attribute the cut-off to a different cause. As explained by Martin Ryle:
As we proceed outward… we find a great excess of fainter ones (radio sources)…
But at still smaller intensities we find a sudden reversal of this trend—a dramatic reduction in the number of the faintest sources. This convergence is so abrupt that we must suppose that before a certain epoch in the past, there were no radio sources.89
This is another example of the “no alternative” fallacy that we have had occasion to criticize at several points in the preceding discussion. It is simply not true that we “must suppose” that there were no radio sources before a certain time. Like Einstein’s assertion that “there is no other way,” and other similar contentions that abound in present—day science, what such an assertion actually means is that there is no alternative providing that all of the elements that define the situation to which the assertion applies are correctly apprehended. But the theorist does not ordinarily resort to the “no alternative” argument unless his case is weak, and it usually turns out, in these instances, that the general situation was not correctly interpreted. In the case now under consideration, analysis of observational data has indicated that all, or nearly all, of the most distant radio sources are quasars.90 Our deductions from factual premises show (1) that these distant quasars are distributed two-dimensionally rather than three-dimensionally (corroborated by the studies just mentioned), and (2) that beyond the distance corresponding to the two-unit speed limit the quasars become unobservable.
Phenomena in the range between unit speed and unit energy, the intermediate regions, are unstable, in that they tend to advance, or revert back, to the lower energy, or speed, levels of the three-dimensional regions. As noted earlier, the spatial forces sometimes gain the upper hand in the boundary zone, and cause a decrease in the speed, bringing the quasar or pulsar back into the material environment. Other explosion products, such as the white dwarfs, attain their maximum speeds in the intermediate range. The average speed of objects on the space side of the neutral axis, the material sector, is relatively low. Any object that leaves the boundary zone on the space side, or does not advance far enough to reach that zone, is subject to the environmental influences of the material sector, and it loses speed for this reason, gradually dropping back to a level below unit speed, in the region of three-dimensional space. Such objects return to the low speed range in essentially the same condition in which they left it. They have never ceased to be material aggregates.
Quasars or pulsars that attain speeds above two net units follow a totally different course. The significant change at the sector boundary is that gravitation, which is no longer effective in space because of the distance, becomes effective in time. This space-time reversal alters the factors that determine the stability of the aggregate. When gravitation begins operating in time, the individual atoms or stars that constitute the aggregate begin moving outward from each other in space by reason of the progression of the natural reference system, now no longer offset by inward gravitational motion. Coincidentally, the process of aggregation in time begins. Eventually the aggregate in space ceases to exist, and an aggregate in time takes its place.
We can deduce that the average energy in the sector of motion in time, the cosmic sector, is similar to the average speed in the sector of motion in space, in that it is relatively low, well below the unit level. The newly arrived atoms that were explosively ejected into this sector therefore lose energy in interactions with the environment. Eventually they drop below the unit energy level and into the region of three-dimensional time.
As brought out in Chapter 5, the atoms of material aggregates, which are contiguous in space, are widely dispersed in time. Thus the continuous ejection of matter from the material sector by explosive processes causes a continuous inflow of dispersed matter into the cosmic sector. Under the influence of gravitation in time, this dispersed matter is gradually aggregated into cosmic stars, objects whose atoms are contiguous in time, but widely dispersed in space. The stars form clusters and galaxies in time, just as their counterparts do in space. Ultimately these aggregates reach the evolutionary limits at which they explode. Some of the explosions are violent enough to eject their products at energies that carry them across the boundary into the material sector. Here the process of aggregation of this matter, now widely dispersed in space, begins anew, initiating another cycle.