A Crucial Test of Pulsar Theory
pul-sar (pul'sär)n. A rotating neutron star, a source of regularly pulsing radio waves. [pulse + quasar]1
pulsar: A rapidly rotating neutron star whose high-energy flashes of radiation sweep out into space; the energy is intercepted by terrestrial observers at regular intervals or pulses.2
...the ultra high speed products [of Type II supernovae] that are expanding in time and moving linearly in space are fast-moving Stage I (not optically visible) white dwarfs. Their most distinctive feature is the intermittent nature of the radiation that is received from them, and for this reason they are called pulsars.3
From what I understand of the Reciprocal System of theory, pulsars are white dwarf stars that emit their regular pattern of electro-magnetic (radio) pulses as a result of the ultra-high speed of their explosion products. As such, it would seem that a pulsar's signals would be dispersed in all directions from the source and, therefore, the pulses should be detectable from any position outside the star.
Current scientific thought views pulsars as spinning neutron stars that emit their beams of radiation much like a lighthouse sending out a warning beacon. If the Earth happens to be located within the path of the beam as it sweeps through space, a pulse (or two) is recorded each time the pulsar rotates.
"...if a pulsar was a hypothetical neutron star, it should be spinning very rapidly. He [Thomas Gold] stated that as a normal star collapses, its spin rate must increase to conserve angular momentum.
"When the core of a supernova collapses to a diameter of only a few miles, it also drags in the star's original magnetic field where it is concentrated one billionfold at the surface of the neutron star. Plasma at the magnetic poles is whipped around with the spinning star, producing very strong radio emissions. If the Earth is in its direct path, observers will pick up this rapidly rotating radio beacon like the pulsating light from a lighthouse."4
Pulsars that are not aligned with Earth, therefore, would not be detectable as such. According to the Reciprocal System:
"In the universe of motion, the periodicity of the radiation received from the pulsars is a necessary consequence of the property that makes them pulsars: the ultra high speed motion. An object moving in the explosion dimension with a speed in this ultra high range arrives at the gravitational limit when its net speed in this dimension (the explosion speed minus the effective gravitational speed) reaches unity. At this point the effective gravitational speed, as we saw in Chapter 14, is equal to the oppositely directed unit speed of the progression of the natural reference system. On the basis of the theory of radiation set forth in the earlier volumes, this means that at the gravitational limit radiation is being emitted at such a rate that we receive one unit of radiation from each mass unit per unit of area per unit of time. At distances beyond this limit, the average amount of radiation received is less because of the further distribution over equivalent space. But radiation is a type of motion, and motion exists only in units. The decrease in the average amount of radiation received can therefore be accomplished by a reduction in the number of units of time during which radiation is being received. Radiation from a pulsar beyond the gravitational limit is received at the same strength as that from one at the gravitational limit, but only during a constantly decreasing proportion of the total time. All of the mass units of a star enter the pulsation zone within a very short time, only a small fraction of the observed period. Thus, even though the total radiation from the star is distributed over an appreciable time interval, it is received as a succession of separate pulses."5
It seems obvious that the difference between these two scenarios could be tested to invalidate one or the other. It would, however, necessitate making observations outside the supposed width of the pulsar's beam from vantage points far removed from Earth.
If, per conventional thought, pulsars have a beam that turns with the spinning star, observations conducted outside the narrow sweep of the beam would indicate a reduction in the intensity of the pulses or no pulse reception at all.
If, per the Reciprocal System, pulsars emit omnidirectional pulses, all observations from any position would indicate similar (and synchronous) pulses.
The crucial test would involve making these observations.
The width of the pulse beam would be the determining factor for attempting any such observation. If it is as large as our solar system, the test becomes merely academic.
If, however, the beam is sufficiently narrow, space probes sent from Earth just might be used to undertake the test.
We now have two such probes in position. The Galileo probe, now investigating Jupiter, and the Ulysses probe, now orbiting the sun outside the ecliptic. If an Earth-based station were to observe a give pulsar in tandem with both probes, it might be possible to make one of the following determinations:
- Pulses are received at all three positions simultaneously--Reciprocity wins.
- Pulses are received by all three positions at different times--Conventional wins.
- Pulses are received by only one or two positions--Conventional wins. Of course, none of these outcomes actually verifies either of the theories, but it would lend support one way or the other.
I wonder if NASA would be willing to add such a test to the end of their current missions with these two probes. Perhaps even Voyager 2 could be used before it gets too far away. If anyone knows how to approach NASA with a research proposal and/or application for a research grant to conduct such a test, we would be interesting in hearing from you.
- Funk & Wagnalls Standard Desk Dictionary, Volume 2, page 536.
- Hamburg, Michael, Astronomy Made Simple (Doubleday, New York, NY, 1993), page 226.
- Larson, Dewey B., Universe of Motion (North Pacific Publishers, Portland, OR, 1984), page 227.
- Hamburg, Michael, op. cit., pages 150-151.
- Larson, Dewey B., op. cit., page 232.
Comments On A Crucial Test of Pulsar Theory
K.V.K. Nehru, Ph.D.
A Crucial Test of Pulsar Theory,R. J. Tucek,Reciprocity, XXV (3), Winter 1996-1997, pages 21-22
Tucek writes: "...per the Reciprocal System, pulsars emit omnidirectional pulses...". But Larson states in The Universe of Motion, page 237: "Since the pulsar radiation originates in a two-dimensional region, it is distributed two-dimensionally..."
This means that the emission is in a plane, and is not omni-directional as Tucek writes. This, however, is still different from the prediction of the conventional theory and therefore should provide an opportunity for experimental verification.